Globalization is the cooperation of several countries with a view to obtaining a common positive result in the economy, politics, culture and other spheres of social life. Globalization is a controversial issue these days. Many countries began to develop rapidly due to globalization, and some, on the contrary, only worsened their economic situation. Nevertheless, this process is an important moment in the history of humankind and is of great value for modern society.
Globalization is a product of the postmodern era, the transition from the industrial to the post-industrial stage of economic development, the formation of the fundamentals of the modern civilization. Globalization of economic life is the process of formation of a holistic world economy based on the development of extensive economic ties between firms, countries, and regions.Although globalization accelerates the development of humanity and is its consequence, it is a complex process that needs to be adapted and which creates a number of serious problems and difficulties. Such a rapid pace of change can be threatening, and most countries try to control or manage them.
The main consequence of globalization is the world division of labor, migration (and, as a rule, concentration) across the planet of capital, production resources, standardization of legislation, economic and technological processes, and the convergence and fusion of cultures between several countries. This is a kind of systemic process. It means that it covers all spheres of society. There is an increase in the number of problems common to a group of states, as well as an increase in the number and types of integrating entities.
Views on the origins of globalization are debatable. Historians consider it as one of the stages of the of capitalist development. Economists are counting on the trans-nationalization of financial markets. Political scientists focus on the spread of democratic organizations. Cultural researchers explore globalization in a context of Westernization of culture, including American economic expansion. There are some different informational and technological approaches to explaining the processes of globalization. Political and economic globalization is different. As a subject of it is the regionalization, which gives a powerful cumulative effect of the formation of the world’s poles of economic and technological development. At the same time, the origin of the word “globalization” indicates that the leading role in this process is played by the rapid growth of international trade taking place at certain historical stages. For the first time the word was used by Karl Marx, who wrote in one of Engels’ letters at the end of the 1850s: “Now the world market exists in reality. With the release of California and Japan to the world market, globalization has come to pass”. The same important role of international trade in the processes of globalization is proved by the fact that the previous globalization that began in the era of Marx ended in the 1930s after all developed countries moved to a policy of strict protectionism, which caused a sharp contraction in international trade.