Linden, Dedrick & Kraemer (2011) confirmedThe iPod producing company, Apple is putting in practice the process of outsourcing to reach out to its market. This is in realization of the competitiveness of the global market, through an action plan that is unique from its closest competitors. The structure of the organization, through analysis from the reports on the perspectives of organizational theory, depicts a clear definition of both the modernism and postmodernism perspectives. This implies that the nature of organizational theory perspective within the organization depicts a transition between modernism and post modernism, which are the contributory factors for analysis of mode of operations. Modernism and postmodernism relate in various jurisdictions in that, they both help to analyze the organizational theory within business enterprises (Levis, 2009).
Levis (2009) believes that the basic function of modernism is how humanity interacts with the environment. This entails basic knowledge about the environment for sound control. The contributory terms to acquisition of knowledge about the environment, its interpretation and conversion to viable conditions is what entails postmodernism. As much as the concept of modernism is subjective, there is an element of objective knowledge acquaintance in postmodernism. Moreover, the concept of leadership defines the gap between modernism and postmodernism. For instance, central leadership is the aspect of modernism while servant leadership entails postmodernism. In real sense, modernism is in view of elevation of the minority. Moreover, the converse of postmodernism is what entails modernism. Postmodernism is still growing largely to include explanations of the after effects of the modern era (Pisano & Shih, 2009).
This essay depicts how different organizational theory perspective help to define the organizational networks and influence in Apple. It gives the real analysis of the impact of the perspectives of organizational theory to the mandate of resource management within the iPod company.
Firstly, the influence that any company or organization has to the environment is a clear definition of modernism. According to Fletcher (1992), organisations have the mandate of shouldering all the environmental influences to counter their effects. This is purely the role of modernism as it helps in formulation of an action plan in response to environmental changes. This nature of control to the environment helps the company to withstand both the internal and external forces to stand amongst the most successful.
In addition, the modernism theory defines the social way of life of people within an organization. It seeks to address the settings of the human resource management within an organization. The definition of the modernism theory is in the company’s alignment with the socio-technical theory, where, it deals with technological processing. This implies that the modernism theory seeks to view how the social and technical influences shape the entire organization. For instance, it aligns a company within the limits of responsiveness to information and communication through technological innovations. Basing on the fact that projects form the basic component of activities within organizations, they heavily depend on the social-technical perspective for implementation, which is a characteristic of the modernism theory (Pisano & Shih, 2009).
The modernism theory is also a view of liberation of humankind to have control of the environment from realistic knowledge. This explains the fact that ones one knows how and why organizations operate under certain environmental conditions, then there is a better understanding of the behavior in organizations. This understanding of the environment is vital to organizations since it helps in devising the best way forward to environmental pressure. This implies that the organization with capabilities to stand the heat of inward and outward forces would stand, while those that cannot withhold the forces are due for extinction (Pal & Dutta, 2008). Moreover, organisations that have a sound approach to its environment is likely to appreciate the resources surrounding it in form of maximisation without depletion.
Modernism seeks strong faith and believe in the knowledge man has over the area of proximity and how the forces surrounding him helps in action plan. This implies that the beliefs that people have over he environment helps them in assumption of duties responsive enough to assure control over that environment. For instance, technological innovations are because of understanding the needs of the society, where developments into the nonexistent world are vital. Consequently, the need for faster and efficient modes of operation are the factors underpinning adjustments to innovation, which is a responsive move controlled by the environment.
Secondly, Pisano & Shih (2009) established that postmodernism is a perspective of the organizational theory that is rather subjective than objective. This is from the fact that there is no realistic knowledge. Postmodernism is a form of freedom from absolute, where there is very little probability of achieving what is not achievable. Postmodern approach influences the learning process in that the process of acquiring knowledge has diversity in terms of language, environment and method (Pisano & Shih, 2009). Consequently, there is not one particular goal for acquisition of knowledge. The theory defines the attributes of knowledge on an irrational basis in that it is from ones perception that they know, through eye visions. It is also relevant to treat knowledge as being contextual since it is not waiting to be a discovery. This means that for one to have knowledge, they must seek for it. For instance, the shifts in technological innovations have led to upsurge in the use of internet in the information communication technology, where companies rooted to their visions are fostering use of technology in project management for better and conclusie results.
As much as the idea of postmodernism disputes, the claim of what you are not. It seeks to have no concern about what you are. This is paradoxical in terms of reality, as postmodernism is a view of what you observe and get experienced to, foreseen as being real. Moreover, knowledge is collective views that people have over anything seen and unseen. This is a form of discourse, where knowledge gets a random sample of descriptions people give. Postmodernism is also a view of description of truth as ethics in the social fraternity. Truth is anything that works. The generalization form that contemporary knowledge gives on truth is the diversity in chances, where one accepts the changing world as the only existing truth. Postmodernism is an era after the modernism, where there is a shift from subjective knowledge to objective knowledge (Branstetter & Lardy, 2006).
Levis, K (2009) reiterates that in, as much as, modernism is the best knowledge and principles acting within an environment, postmodernism is a future prospect of what we are not. This implies that the knowledge in modernism is objective, thus clarified as true or false. However, in postmodernism, knowledge is subjective in that it depends on the discourses and vies that we give about anything. Knowledge in postmodernism is a kind of story, where the perception that one has over nature is what is real (Levis, 2009). Postmodernism disputes the fact that knowledge can be objective because qualitative analysis of knowledge depends on the linguistics of a particular culture. The utterances that people make are what they know, which is the definition of subjective knowledge. In addition, postmodernism seeks to counter address the norms held by modernism as true. It nullifies the assumptions held by modernists through deconstruction.
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The first application of modernism to the working environment of Apple Company is the dominance of the company into the hemisphere of business. The company has risen from lower platforms to take control of the environment in terms of technological innovation and outsourcing. There is a close relationship in the descriptions of the two perspectives of organizational theory and the network influences within Apple Company. These perspectives are vital in analyzing the organizational structure within the company. Firstly, the theories introduce the multi-perspective approach, where there is discussion of the characteristic management systems within the company. The company has a constitution, where terms of reference are to reduce production costs and increase profitability. The need for cheaper labor has made the company to stand out competitively in the global scene. This is a unique characteristic, since low labor costs are directly proportional with cost of the product. This is a feature of the modernism perspective, which puts emphasis on the competitive global scene with comparison to the evolution theory, where those that can adapt with competition survive, while those with weaker resistivity to changing environment perish.
The company withstands the pressure from chances within the environment. This implies that management within the organization puts emphasis on knowledge of the environment to maximize on production. Consequently, the market prospects within the organization are a form of outsourcing from oversees. This provides the company with varied market sources with increased profitability due to lower labor costs. This is also a survival tactic as most companies base on competitive advantages to stand out on the global scene. Apple survives the wrath of conflict from the role of its supplier company; Foxconn, which performs at lower expectations in relation to the constitution of the lead company. For instance, the company defiles suggestions of wage increment to employees at the expense of the plight of the lead company (Duhigg &Barboza, 2012).
Moreover, the modernism perspective of organizational theory analyzes the organization as the special entity into the environment. Here, there is great emphasis on the nature and structure of the organization. It also stipulates the strategic plans within the organization. For instance, the outsourcing of labor and market for the products within Apple Company defines its features. The organization is a clear foundation of innovation, which puts it on the technological grid. The labor prospects within the company are in coherence with the fundamental goal of cheap labor costs. The strategic planning within the company has had appreciation from the employment; an opportunity to over one million people oversees.
Analytically, the company depicts a form of off shoring to other countries like china, where there are low input costs, a definite increase in scale economies and increased profitability without increase in the prices of the final product, indicating that the company ahs an influence over its surrounding business environment. According to Pisano & Shih (2009), the business history of the company is a power within a supply chain where it is an articulation of the difference between a buyer driven and producer driven global chain commodity. This implies that the lead firm operates on setting up of decentralized networks or integrated chains with different characteristics of input and output. This has affected the structure of the organization (Pisano & Shih, 2009).The company, having its power to utilize the force of low wage production areas, has shifted production oversees to seek for cheap labor. However, work intensification has resulted in criticism on the working conditions of employees. For instance, work intensification in Foxconn International Holdings, which is an assembly industry, has been a source of deliberation over worker’s safety. The existence of factories made incidences of suicides prolific, while the upsurge in number of workers led to strained housing. Consequently, the calls for better wages for employees made the company to shift its operations to other provinces like Hubei, where there are cheaper labor prospects (Branstetter & Lardy, 2006).<
Consequently, the organizational theory perspectives address the social ethical part, where the social conflict and power struggles within organizations comes up. The culminating idea is that once an organization establishes, it is faced with challenges over the process of decision making especially if is charged with corporation mandates where there exists high incidences of vulnerability to conflict. The Apple Company has a structure, where conflict is the main basis. For instance, the workers in its assembly company Foxconn live in deplorable conditions despite efforts by the management of Apple to avert the situation. In addition, the company faces criticism over the wage of employees. This is a contributory factor to development and existence of the company since it has aligned policies that source for cheaper labor prospects from exotic sources. However, the company falls short of maintaining the employee ethics. There are incidences of oppression of employees, especially in the assembly company, where people work on peanut wages, living in deplorable conditions and working over the time requirements. This is structures deviation from the norm, which has distorted the reputation held by the company.
Modernism defines the Apple Company through the development of structures systems that affect operations and determine the management scope within the organization. The company is composed of constituent supply companies, where innovation is the task of the lead company while assembly falls in the diversified assembly companies. These subunits require management that is congruent to the mother company, where the constitution of the mother company affects operations within the mother company. Moreover, these operations have to be in harmony for a common end. A case study of how the lead company has influenced operations within the assembly companies is in the mode of reaction to pressure from deplorable conditions of employees.
Basing on the fact that the assembly company maintains the integrity of cheaper labor prospects; the lead company stipulates the wage levels of employees. While reacting to congestion as a problem facing the people working at Foxconn, which is the assembly company, Apple has opened up new branches of assembly companies within Chinese provinces to reduce the stress on social amenities. This has ensured correlation between subsystems of the organization, to facilitate coordination of activities within the organization. The submergence of component companies with different jurisdictions, where one deals with innovation, while others deal with assembly and sales is a clear stipulation of hierarchical systems within the organization. These constituent companies act as subsystems that make up the sophisticated system.
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The perspectives of modernism and postmodernism are vital in examining the organizational network and influence in the Apple Company. The management of systems within the company depicts a history of innovation. This is a concept of postmodernism, which characterizes acquisition of knowledge from experience. The company outsources its labor prospects through expatriation. This method imparts knowledge in management systems and innovation into new products to meet the customer needs. The way in which the company gives training to its employees is through apprenticeship. There is inheritance of skills from one generation to the other, implying that the knowledge is from what people see and take part in the organization (Hall, 2006).
The other application of the organizational theory perspectives to the network within Apple Company is the social mandate described in the modernism perspective. The culture of the organization does not give the people working within the company a friendly environment, where there are chances of deplorable living conditions emanating from congestion. The perspective of modernism, being a center of understanding the environment is only valid as long as the company makes exuberated profits at the expense of cheap laborers living and working on poor wage. The company puts emphasis on shifts to new and cheaper labor provinces to reduce its production costs. This implies that management within the company has a clear understanding of the nature of labor and market making it to out-compete other lead companies.
In conclusion, the perspectives of organizational theory are interrelated in terms of defining the structure within an organization. They help in analysis of organizations through structured formulation of the basis with which the company is set. Moreover, they depict a contrast between modernism and postmodernism, a phenomenon based on definition of knowledge as being objective and subjective respectively. The theories form the basis of definition of operations within the apple company, where the general foundation of knowledge within the organization is both objective and subjective. The learning process takes place through science and technology using practical devices, which is objective, while the visions set by the organization and the course of action plan that sees the company stand out to the global competition is subjective. The organizational network in Apple Company is such that the social structure does not consider the livelihoods of the people working within the organization especially in the assembly company. This forms a shortfall of the socio-technical perspective of modernism, where the livelihoods are deplorable.
However, the structure is such that the labor prospects for assembly of its products are cheap. This is a factor of good relations and articulation with the environment to perform on the global scene. The aspect of learning about the environment and the people in Apple entails the modernism perspective of organizational theory. The management understands shifts within the business environment and makes resolutions that effect responsive changes. For instance, after the explosion due to congestion, the assembly company has launched new labor locations within the Chinese provinces (Levis, 2009).