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Cardiovascular disease conditions are the principal causes of death in Colombia and the world as a whole. According to Gamboa et al. (2015), these diseases account for 28% of all the deaths registered in Colombia; this is a quite high figure, with the mortality rate of 152 deaths in every 100,000 people. The most affected population in Colombia is the middle-aged people who mainly suffer from heart diseases that form a part of the cardiovascular conditions. Hypertensive and ischemic heart diseases are the most prevalent ones among Latin Americans, including the Colombians (Bocchi et al., 2013). Some of the risk factors for the heart diseases in this population include physical inactivity, overweight and obesity, tobacco and alcohol consumption, and unhealthy diets (Gamboa et al., 2015). This research paper looks forward to discussing promotional health interventions through the implementation of strategies that can modify the risk factors for heart diseases among middle age Colombians.
Overweight and Obesity
The World Health Organization (WHO) explains that overweight refers to a body mass index (BMI) of 25 to 29.9kg/m2, while obesity is characterized with BMIs of 30 kg/m2 and above (Lanas, Serón, & Lanas, 2013). Furthermore, individuals with normal weight have a BMI of between 18.5 and 24.9 kg/m2 (Lanas, Serón, & Lanas, 2013). Many nations have been marred with the challenge of overweight and obesity that are linked to the ever-increasing prevalence of cardiac diseases. According to Yusuf et al. (2014), obesity is an independent risk factor for heart diseases, such as coronary heart disease, in addition to being a risk for diabetes and hypertension. Addressing this challenge involves the effort of the locals and their health care providers, for example, nurses. Individuals should engage themselves in the activities that reduce their weight and help them maintain a healthy weight. Such activities include the performance of regular physical exercises and the adherence to healthy and balanced diets (Lanas, Serón, & Lanas, 2013). Additionally, nurses and other health personnel should educate middle-aged Colombians about the importance of maintaining a healthy body weight and inform the population about the standard values of weight and BMI. Such a thing is important to eradicate that being overweight is a sign of good health among middle age Colombians.
Physical inactivity is a risk factor for heart diseases since sedentary lifestyle is a cause of other risk conditions. Yusuf et al. (2014) claim that besides being a risk factor for cardiac diseases conditions, a sedentary lifestyle causes other heart disease risk factors, including hyperglycemia, obesity, and hypertension. Performing regular physical exercises helps in burning excessive calories in the body, something that further aids in the utilization of fats that could otherwise clog the coronary arteries and result in deadly cardiac diseases. As Lanas, Serón, and Lanas (2013) claim, 7.1% of the middle age Latin Americans suffer from coronary heart diseases, which could be attributed to their sedentary lifestyle. Adult individuals from 18 to 65 years of age require at least 20 minutes of vigorous physical activity thrice a week, or moderate intensity aerobic exercises for not less than 30 minutes five times a week (Lanas, Serón, & Lanas, 2013). Nurses and other health professionals should educate individuals in this population on the importance of physical exercises when it comes to cardiovascular diseases.
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Tobacco use is among the major risk factors for cardiovascular diseases that affect the heart. According to Lanas, Serón, and Lanas (2013), the smoking of tobacco products, such as cigarettes, causes several disease conditions, and 50% of all preventable deaths occur in smokers while half of these deaths among smokers are cardiovascular diseases. The increase in the number of smoking individuals and the amount of time, during which an individual has been smoking, are directly proportional to the likelihood of developing a heart disease as well as other cardiovascular conditions. Those who smoke also have increased levels of contracting an adverse health outcome when a cardiac disease occurs (Lanas, Serón, & Lanas, 2013). Furthermore, passive smokers are likely to get cardiovascular diseases as well. These people include the non-smoking spouses who live with their smoking partners.
Although Colombia has tried hard enough to curb smoking to prevent the complications associated with this unhealthy behavior, its efforts are yet to bring substantial results. Despite the smoke-free campaigns and executed policies in the country, the prevalence rates of smoking of the currently smoking individuals stand at 12.8% (Lanas, Serón, & Lanas, 2013). Interventions to reduce or eliminate tobacco use among middle-aged Colombians can be performed at the individual and the population level. At the community level, health education through mass campaigns, the reduction of demand for tobacco and its products through the increase of product prices and the prohibition of selling tobacco products to the minors can help greatly (Lanas, Serón, & Lanas, 2013). Targeting the population is a role executed by the health personnel such as nurses and the government authorities. On the other hand, individuals should be encouraged to cease smoking tobacco products. Such a thing is helpful in the minimization of the risk of developing cardiac disease conditions.
Cardiovascular diseases are the leading cause of death in Colombia and the world as a whole. In Columbia, heart diseases account for a huge proportion of all the cardiovascular diseases among the middle-aged population. The only way to curb the challenge posed by cardiac disease in this population is through the identification of the risk factors for the cardiac diseases before implementing necessary health promotional interventions. Obesity is the most important risk factor that can be controlled through weight control by engaging in regular physical activities. Obesity and overweight are major risks for heart diseases and, at the same time, a cause for other risk factors like diabetes and hypertension. Sedentary lifestyles are also a danger in addition to the use of tobacco products. The only way is for the population to abandon inactivity and cease smoking. Cessation of smoking can be promoted through mass campaigns and the restrictions on supply by increasing the prices of tobacco products.