Free «Economic Models» Essay Sample

To begin with, there is truly no person or a group of people from government who runs the economy. The economy is run by laws of supply and demand. Put simply, the market consists of consumers of goods and services and suppliers who provide consumers with goods and services. If there is a person or a company that owns a certain product and wants to sell it and if there is another person or company with the need of this product, these two will find mutual understanding in price and the transaction will be made.

Furthermore, there could be found several reasons why it happens and why products are readily available directly at the moment of purchase. The first and foremost reason is risk. Suppliers cannot be sure of prospective amounts of sales of their products, so their produce a certain amount of goods at first and store them in storages to provide the availability of goods at the moment of purchase. In case of services, it is much simpler since they have no physical form and demand no storages. Afterwards, products are offered to customers who either buy them or not. It is okay for the economy when millions of businesses in the world go bankruptcy every year, because their products are not competitive. Simultaneously, millions of new businesses appear in the world every year with the aim of satisfying customers’ needs.

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This brings us to the second point, that the majority of products are likely to be successful, since the world economy is growing. Despite some crises, last 50-60 years have shown that the population of the world is growing and while natural recourses such as land and oil are scarce, people in future will need more food and energy to satisfy their needs.

To get a better understanding of all economic processes, it’s necessary to talk first about such a notion as an economic model.

What Is an Economic Model?

An economic model is a theoretical construct that represents economic processes by a set of variables and a set of logical and/or quantitative relationships between them. The economic model definition typically involves simplifications and assumptions, allowing economists to see how changes in one area can affect the whole. For example, a production possibility model can show the maximum combination of goods that can be produced with available resources and technology, illustrating opportunity costs and efficiency.

These models are essential for making predictions about economic behavior, helping policymakers and businesses make informed decisions. By analyzing how different factors interact, an economic model can predict the effects of changes in policy, such as interest rates in the money market, on broader economic outcomes. They also help in understanding how economies work and in forecasting future economic scenarios.

In essence, economic models distill the complexity of economies into more manageable, strategic insights. They are not perfect mirrors of reality but are invaluable tools for grasping the fundamental mechanics of economic operations and for guiding decision-making processes.

The Use of Economic Models

Economic models are vital tools in the field of public economics and beyond, serving a multitude of purposes:

  • Testing Theories: They provide a framework for economists to test hypotheses and validate theories about economic behavior.
  • Deriving Values: By simulating various economic scenarios, models help in deriving values for different economic indicators.
  • Making Predictions: Economic models are instrumental in making predictions about economic behavior, forecasting how changes in policy or circumstances might affect an economy.
  • Analyzing Goods and Services: Models like the production possibility frontier illustrate the trade-offs and potential production levels of different combinations of goods/services.
  • Understanding Money Markets: They can be used to analyze the money market, predicting how interest rate changes will impact the economy.
  • Formulating Policies: Governments and policymakers use economic models to craft policies that aim to stabilize or grow the economy.
  • Educating and Informing: They serve as educational tools, helping students and the public understand complex economic concepts.
  • Incorporating Assumptions: Assumptions of economists are embedded within models to simplify the real-world complexities and focus on specific relationships.

Each of these uses underscores the importance of economic models in comprehending and managing the intricate web of factors that constitute the workings of modern economies. While they are simplifications, their role in decision-making and education is invaluable.

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Restrictions of Economic Models

Economic models are indispensable in public economics, personal finance, and other areas due to their ability to simplify and analyze complex economic activities. However, they come with inherent limitations:

  • Assumptions of Economists: Models are built on assumptions that may not accurately reflect real-world complexities. For instance, they might assume rational behavior among all economic agents, which isn’t always the case.
  • Predictions about Economic Behavior: While models can make educated guesses, predicting human behavior with complete accuracy is challenging due to the unpredictable nature of individuals and markets.
  • Scope of Public Economics: In the realm of this area, models might fail to capture the full scope of government interventions and their impact on the economy.
  • Personal Finance Dynamics: When it comes to personal finance, models often do not account for the emotional and psychological factors that influence individual spending and saving habits.
  • Money Market Fluctuations: The money market is subject to rapid changes, and models may not be agile enough to keep up with or predict these fluctuations.
  • Provision of Goods and Services: Models might oversimplify the processes involved in the production and distribution of products and services, ignoring factors like environmental impact or social welfare.

In essence, while economic models are powerful tools for analysis and forecasting, they are to be used with an understanding of their limitations and the context in which they are applied.

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Understanding the Fundamentals of Economic Assumptions

Economic assumptions are the foundational beliefs or simplified representations of reality that assumptions of economists use to build their models. These assumptions can range from the behavior of individuals in personal finance – such as the propensity to save or spend – to broader market behaviors in the money market, like the response of interest rates to inflation. They are necessary because they provide a starting point for models to predict economic outcomes. While these assumptions may not hold in every situation, they are essential for creating a baseline from which economists can work. By using these simplified versions of reality, economists can focus on specific variables and their interactions, making the complex world of economics more understandable and manageable.

The Necessity of Assumptions in Economic Analysis

Assumptions are the bedrock of economic theory, providing a foundation upon which economic models are built. These models are essential for making predictions about economic behavior, but the sheer complexity of real-world economics means that without some level of simplification, it would be impossible to generate any meaningful analysis. Here are several reasons why economists need to make assumptions:

  • To Simplify Complex Systems: The economy is a vast and intricate system influenced by countless factors. Assumptions allow economists to focus on a few key elements at a time, making the system more manageable to study and understand.
  • To Create Baseline Scenarios: By establishing a set of standard conditions, economists can develop baseline scenarios that serve as a point of comparison for analyzing changes in economic policies or conditions.
  • To Facilitate Predictions: Assumptions provide the necessary parameters within which economists can make predictions. For instance, assuming that all other conditions remain constant (ceteris paribus) allows for the isolation of the effects of a single variable.
  • For Analytical Clarity: Clear assumptions are essential for transparency and replicability in economic research. They allow other economists to understand the conditions under which certain conclusions are drawn.
  • To Inform Public Economics: In such field, assumptions are used to forecast the potential impact of policy changes, such as tax reforms or government spending adjustments, on the economy.
  • To Guide Personal Finance: Assumptions about future interest rates, inflation, and market trends are crucial in personal finance for planning investments, retirement, and savings.
  • To Understand Money Markets: In the money market, assumptions about liquidity preferences and the behavior of financial institutions underpin models that predict interest rate movements and their effects on the economy.

While assumptions are necessary, it’s also important to recognize their limitations. They must be reasonable and reflect real-world conditions as closely as possible to ensure that the models and predictions they support are relevant and useful.

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The Process Behind Economists’ Assumptions in Model Design

When designing economic models, assumptions of economists play a critical role in shaping the framework of their analysis. These assumptions are derived from empirical observations, theoretical insights, and historical data. Economists often start with a general theory or principle, such as the production possibility curve, which represents the trade-off between the production of different goods given limited resources. They then make assumptions about the variables involved – like the availability of resources or technology – to simplify the model and make it tractable. Assumptions are necessary to focus the model on specific questions and to allow for predictions and analyses that are comprehensible and applicable. While these assumptions may not fully capture every nuance of the real economy, they are essential for constructing models that can provide valuable insights into economic dynamics.

What Is Behavioral Economics?

Behavioral Economics is an interdisciplinary field that blends insights from psychology with economic theory to provide a more accurate understanding of human decision-making. It challenges the traditional economic assumption that individuals are rational actors, offering predictions about economic behavior that account for cognitive biases and emotional influences. In the labor market, behavioral economics examines why workers and employers behave in ways that deviate from predicted patterns, such as why some people choose lower-paying jobs that offer greater satisfaction. It also explores how psychological factors affect personal finance, influencing spending, saving, and investing behaviors. Furthermore, in the money market, it considers how market fluctuations can be driven by traders’ moods rather than just fundamental values. By acknowledging the complexity of human behavior, behavioral economics provides a richer, more nuanced understanding of economic activities across various domains, including the labor market.

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Illustrating an Economic Model: A Practical Example?

An economic model definition encapsulates the concept of a simplified framework used to describe the workings of economic processes. A prime example is the supply and demand model in the labor market. This model illustrates how the price of labor (wages) is determined by the demand for workers by employers (demand curve) and the supply of workers willing to work (supply curve). It also shows how wages fluctuate based on changes in the demand for and supply of goods and services, thereby affecting employment levels. This model helps to understand the dynamics of the labor market and predict changes in employment and wages.

Types of Economic Models


Classical Economic Model

Production Possibility Frontier Model

Focus The allocation of resources in the labor market and the overall economy based on supply and demand. The allocation of resources between different goods and services, illustrating trade-offs and opportunity costs.
Key Concepts Self-regulating markets, Say’s Law, and the invisible hand principle. Efficiency, scarcity, and the production possibility frontier curve.
Application Used to understand the broad workings of the economy, including personal finance and the money market. Applied to demonstrate the maximum productive capacity of an economy and the effects of economic growth.
Assumptions Full employment in the labor market, flexible prices, and no government intervention. Fixed resources, fixed technology, and two products and services being compared.
Use in Predictions Predicts how economies can naturally reach equilibrium and full employment without government intervention. Helps in making predictions about economic behavior by showing possible production levels and the cost of prioritizing one good over another.

The Classical Economic Model emphasizes the self-regulating nature of markets, suggesting that they naturally tend toward equilibrium. In contrast, the Production Possibility Frontier Model is a graphical representation that shows the maximum possible output combinations for two goods and services that an economy can produce, given its technological capabilities and available resources. It is particularly useful in illustrating the concept of opportunity cost and efficiency in production possibility scenarios. Both models are valuable for understanding different aspects of economic theory and practice.

Gap between Developed and Developing Countries

One of the most topical problems in the world nowadays is the current gap between developed and developing countries. It’s necessary to mention a number of causes for such a situation which are caused by differences among countries.

  • The first group of differences is geographical. Some countries own a great amount of natural sources such as oil, gas or agricultural land. Conversely, the other countries are not so rich. Then again, some countries have access to the world’s oceans and so they have a trade with no boundaries with the rest of the world. The other countries are restricted with their location.
  • Secondly, historical reasons exist. Developed countries have been becoming wealthier and wealthier for hundreds of years, while others were occupied.
  • Finally, cultural differences among countries are important. Take for example corruption. It exists in every country, but some societies tend to be more corrupted. Corruption limits the potential of a country and is the barrier for sustainable growth.

The gap between developed and developing countries is a complex and multifaceted issue. While there has been progress in some areas, with developing countries growing faster and reducing the income gap in terms of average incomes, challenges remain. The digital divide is widening with the advent of new technologies  , and income inequality within many developing nations is increasing, affecting overall well-being and happiness. It’s clear that while strides have been made, concerted efforts are still required to bridge the gap and ensure equitable growth and development for all nations.

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The Bottom Line

Economic models are particularly crucial in areas such as the labor market, where they can predict employment trends and wage levels, and in personal finance, where they assist individuals in making informed decisions about savings and investments. By distilling complex realities into more manageable concepts, economic models serve as invaluable tools for economists, policymakers, and the general public, aiding in the comprehension and navigation of the intricate world of economics.

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