Free «The Impact of Globalization on China and India and their Response» Essay Sample

The spinning global economic and political systems and policies can be linked to the rotation of the earth on its own axis; the only difference is that the earth rotates back to the starting point, while the politics and economics of the world move further and further away from the norm. Comparing the current global status to the one that existed a few decades ago, it is obvious to see that a lot has changed. Be it in the communication, business, politics or social systems, change is common to all of them. These changes are not totally unexpected, since humans naturally evolve over time due to various factors. These factors may vary in complexity and impact on human and global evolution. These changes to the various world systems have brought with them various benefits as well as problems.

It is clear that most of these changes gravitate towards globalization, or the integration of various world systems. Even though, globalization is a good thing, it can also be detrimental as Diamond (2005) stated, “Technology can bring about problems and can solves problems. No one has come up with a system to ensure that, as of tomorrow, technology will not create issues. Technology increases power, which is why we have the global tribulations that we face today’’ (p.3). Although technology is not the only player in the rapid global evolution, it is a key factor. The following paper focuses on comparing and contrasting two countries, China and India. It explores the various impacts globalization has had on these two countries, and their response.

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China has been a communist country for a long time, and even up to date democracy is still not a popular subject. India, on the other hand, is an offspring of Europe, which is itself founded on democracy. After India gained her independence from the various European colonizers, the biggest one being Britain, she tended to maintain most of the policies impacted upon it by the European nations. China, on the other hand, was never fully colonized by a single European country; communist colonizers, such as Russia, influenced it. China’s policies, therefore, are made from a communist point of view, while India’s are democracy driven. The article explores various policies in different sectors in the two countries. It also compares and contrasts between the various policy decisions and the basis of these decisions.

Environmental Policy

China and India are two highly industrialized countries, and as a result, they have to compete with a variety of environmental concerns, facing the flora and fauna in their respective countries.


China is known to be among the fastest growing countries in the world in relation to the economy and industrialization. The environmental hazards in the country are numerous and extensive. The country’s leadership and environmental authorities have done much to combat the various risks posed by pollution. Since 2000, China has been the world leader in the use of clean energy. (Henson, 2010). Since 2007, the government has hardened environmental regulations leading to the shutdown of various industries. Although China has improved its environmental control, it still faces severe problems. This is because of the local authorities, whose focus and the aim is to get rich and not conserving the environment. Majority of environmental control and regulation is managed by non-governmental organizations, which are not sufficient.


On the other hand, India has posted an impressive environmental management structure in recent years. Currently the Supreme Court has the responsibility of creating and amending laws and policies related to the environment. The court has created new environmental institutions, put in place effective regulatory structures and conferred additional power to existing environmental authorities. However, various civil groups have hampered the conservation efforts by repeatedly filing cases against government efforts to regulate industries and enforce environmental regulatory mechanisms. In some cases, an environmental project may stall for years, while pollution goes unchecked.

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Military Spending

Military spending is the amount of government monetary resources allocated to a country’s military. The money caters for training, salaries and weapons.The impact of globalization on military spending is a multifaceted issue that affects different countries in various ways. For nations like China and India, globalization has had significant implications for their defense strategies and budget allocations.

Examining the Situation in China

China’s military budget is currently the second highest in the world, after the United States. (Marcus, 2011) In the last decade, military spending in the country has been steadily on the rise, and in May 2012 the defense chief announced a double digit increase in the amount of military spending. Although the country spends only 10% of what US spends on its military, (Engdahl, 2012) it is still a sizable amount relative to other countries. In 2012, the military budget rose by 11.2% reaching $106.4 billion. According to estimates, military spending in China is higher than government spending. China’s defense authorities, however, say that this should not be seen as a danger to the rest of the world.

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China has been particularly proactive in increasing its military spending as a direct consequence of globalization. The country’s integration into the global economy has fueled economic growth, which, in turn, has provided more resources for military expenditure. China views the modernization of its military as essential to protect its growing interests both regionally and globally.

Exploring the Matter in India

In India, the impact of globalization has also been evident in its military spending patterns. With an expanding economy and increasing geopolitical influence, India has sought to bolster its defense capabilities. This includes investing in new technology and expanding its military infrastructure to safeguard its interests against potential threats.

In the 2012-2013 budgets, India’s finance minister announced a 17% increase in the amount of military spending, which now stands at around $40 billion. The government of India is currently on a spree to build its military arsenal and better train its military. In fact, the country has overtaken China in terms of weapon imports. India is the largest trade partner of the United States in the military weapons sector. Generally, China and India are looking to flex their military muscles so as to gain more recognition in the world.

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Overall, the impact of globalization on military spending in China and India reflects their aspirations to play more prominent roles on the international stage. As they continue to grow economically, their military expenditures are likely to increase, reflecting their strategic priorities and the changing dynamics of global power.

Welfare Policy

Welfare policies, also known as social or public welfare policies are actions taken by the government to improve the lifestyle of its citizens. It covers sectors, such as pensions, healthcare and education. The impact of globalization on Welfare Policy in China and India has been profound and transformative. In both countries, globalization has necessitated reforms and adaptations in social welfare systems to address the changing needs of their populations.

Impact of Globalization on Welfare Policy

• China:

  • Prioritized building a comprehensive social welfare system.
  • Focused on social assistance and modernizing social insurance.
  • Improved labor protection and accelerated rural welfare construction.
  • Aimed to reduce the wealth gap and share economic growth benefits.

• India:

  • Welfare policy reforms for inclusive growth.
  • Targeted policies for children, women, disabled, elderly, and vulnerable groups.
  • Ensured a basic standard of living for all citizens.
  • Addressed socioeconomic disadvantages in a globalizing world.

In China, ministry of human resources and social security manages the social welfare in the country. Before 1980, the socialist government met most of the socialist needs. However, in recent years, the government has leaned more towards capitalism, where citizens manage their own affairs with the help from the government. In an effort to improve social welfare, China is looking to establish non-governmental organizations, which will be responsible for fulfilling various social needs. However, this policy has not been fully successful.

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India’s social welfare is struggling to catch up with the current economic growth in the country. Even though the government has done impressive work in boosting the state of social welfare in the country, the growth is uneven. Some areas are still in dire need of better welfare policies. In an attempt to improve social welfare, the government has abolished several redundant social policies and introduced newer and better ones. An example is the fair price shops, which sell necessities at relatively lower prices. In general, there is a marked improvement in the education, health care, employment, child development and family sectors.

Drugs and Narcotics Policy

Despite the current global economic growth, drug abuse still remains a serious problem. The youths are most affected. This is a matter of significant concern, since the youth are the future of the world hence drug abuse puts global future in a crisis.



China has for a long time been used as a transit route for drugs from the golden triangle (Burma, Thailand, Laos and Vietnam) and the Golden Crescent (Afghanistan, Pakistan and Iran) both bordering China. The country’s proximity to sea ports has also increased illegal trade in drugs and narcotics. The government has introduced tough laws to combat this problem, but it has largely failed, especially in the rehabilitation center. The Chinese government at time detains drug addicts and violates their human rights instead of helping them. In view of the inability to control drug use and the effects, such as HIV/AIDS, the government has sought outside help to solve the problem. The NDPS regulates the use and trade of drugs and narcotics possession after implementation of the 1985 policy on substance abuse. In general, the Indian government is very serious on regulating drug use in the country. It has introduced severe punishments for anyone caught breaking a law in regards to drugs and narcotics.

Human Trafficking

Human trafficking is the unauthorized or illegal trade in people for the sole purposes of sexual exploitation, forced labor or simply for commercial purposes.

Impact of Globalization on Human Trafficking

• China:

  • Global crises, including the pandemic, have shifted trafficking patterns.
  • Fewer victims are being identified, possibly due to weakened law enforcement capacities.
  • War and conflict create opportunities for traffickers to exploit vulnerable populations.

• India:

  • Globalization has both positive and negative effects on human trafficking.
  • The Northeastern regions are particularly vulnerable due to porous borders.
  • Trafficking includes sexual exploitation, forced labor, and organ trading.
  • Efforts are being made to curb trafficking at national and global levels.

Industries and companies in China have for many years, been accused of engaging in human trafficking, while the government closes its eyes to the illegal trade. The government relies mostly on the United States and nongovernmental organizations to help combat this trade. These organizations do not have enough power to prosecute, thus human trafficking in China is still a major issue. The few policies available concentrate on women and children leaving male victims to suffer.

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Similar to China, India has also been largely unsuccessful in combating human trafficking problems within its borders. Although there are policies and laws prohibiting various forms of modern slavery, these laws are not successfully implemented. In some countries, the government officials themselves are part of the illegal trade.


In conclusion, the impact of globalization on China and India has been profound and transformative. China has adeptly harnessed globalization to become a manufacturing powerhouse, lifting millions out of poverty and asserting itself as a global economic leader. India, meanwhile, has leveraged its skilled workforce to become a hub for services and information technology, showcasing a different facet of globalization’s impact.

Both India and China have responded differently to various social, political and economic problems arising from globalization. One thing that is clear is that the two countries put very little effort in solving social problems. As we can see from the above discussion, military spending and the environment receive considerable attention, while the other three issues are ignored. In a general view, the two governments and many other governments in the world focus on money and politics. Though there may be economic and political growth, the affected countries will eventually crumble due to neglect of the society. The United States has played a major role in influencing better social policies both through setting an example and direct action. The US can, however, only do so much; the bulk of social responsibility is in the concerned government’s hands.

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Both nations have responded to the challenges and opportunities presented by globalization with strategic policies aimed at economic growth and development. As they continue to evolve within this global framework, the impact of globalization will likely shape their trajectories for years to come, underscoring the significance of their responses in the face of a rapidly changing world.

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