Table of Contents
The spinning global economic and political systems and policies can be linked to the rotation of the earth on its own axis; the only difference is that the earth rotates back to the starting point, while the politics and economics of the world move further and further away from the norm. Comparing the current global status to the one that existed a few decades ago, it is obvious to see that a lot has changed. Be it in the communication, business, politics or social systems, change is common to all of them. These changes are not totally unexpected, since humans naturally evolve over time due to various factors. These factors may vary in complexity and impact on human and global evolution. These changes to the various world systems have brought with them various benefits as well as problems.
It is clear that most of these changes gravitate towards globalization, or the integration of various world systems. Even though, globalization is a good thing, it can also be detrimental as Diamond (2005) stated, “Technology can bring about problems and can solves problems. No one has come up with a system to ensure that, as of tomorrow, technology will not create issues. Technology increases power, which is why we have the global tribulations that we face today’’ (p.3). Although technology is not the only player in the rapid global evolution, it is a key factor. The following paper focuses on comparing and contrasting two countries, China and India. It explores the various impacts globalization has had on these two countries, and their response.
China has been a communist country for a long time, and even up to date democracy is still not a popular subject. India, on the other hand, is an offspring of Europe, which is itself founded on democracy. After India gained her independence from the various European colonizers, the biggest one being Britain, she tended to maintain most of the policies impacted upon it by the European nations. China, on the other hand, was never fully colonized by a single European country; communist colonizers, such as Russia, influenced it. China’s policies, therefore, are made from a communist point of view, while India’s are democracy driven. The article explores various policies in different sectors in the two countries. It also compares and contrasts between the various policy decisions and the basis of these decisions.
China and India are two highly industrialized countries, and as a result, they have to compete with a variety of environmental concerns, facing the flora and fauna in their respective countries.
China is known to be among the fastest growing countries in the world in relation to the economy and industrialization. The environmental hazards in the country are numerous and extensive. The country’s leadership and environmental authorities have done much to combat the various risks posed by pollution. Currently, China is the world leader in the use of clean energy. (Henson, 2010). Since 2007, the government has hardened environmental regulations leading to the shutdown of various industries. Although China has improved its environmental control, it still faces severe problems. This is because of the local authorities, whose focus and the aim is to get rich and not conserving the environment. Majority of environmental control and regulation is managed by non-governmental organizations, which are not sufficient.
On the other hand, India has posted an impressive environmental management structure in recent years. Currently the Supreme Court has the responsibility of creating and amending laws and policies related to the environment. The court has created new environmental institutions, put in place effective regulatory structures and conferred additional power to existing environmental authorities. However, various civil groups have hampered the conservation efforts by repeatedly filing cases against government efforts to regulate industries and enforce environmental regulatory mechanisms. In some cases, an environmental project may stall for years, while pollution goes unchecked.
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Military spending is the amount of government monetary resources allocated to a country’s military. The money caters for training, salaries and weapons.
China’s military budget is currently the second highest in the world, after the United States. (Marcus, 2011) In the last decade, military spending in the country has been steadily on the rise, and in May 2012 the defense chief announced a double digit increase in the amount of military spending. Although the country spends only 10% of what US spends on its military, (Engdahl, 2012) it is still a sizable amount relative to other countries. In 2012, the military budget rose by 11.2% reaching $106.4 billion. According to estimates, military spending in China is higher than government spending. China’s defense authorities, however, say that this should not be seen as a danger to the rest of the world.
In the 2012-2013 budgets, India’s finance minister announced a 17% increase in the amount of military spending, which now stands at around $40 billion. The government of India is currently on a spree to build its military arsenal and better train its military. In fact, the country has overtaken China in terms of weapon imports. India is the largest trade partner of the United States in the military weapons sector. Generally, China and India are looking to flex their military muscles so as to gain more recognition in the world.
Welfare policies, also known as social or public welfare policies are actions taken by the government to improve the lifestyle of its citizens. It covers sectors, such as pensions, healthcare and education.
In China, ministry of human resources and social security manages the social welfare in the country. Before 1980, the socialist government met most of the socialist needs. However, in recent years, the government has leaned more towards capitalism, where citizens manage their own affairs with the help from the government. In an effort to improve social welfare, China is looking to establish non-governmental organizations, which will be responsible for fulfilling various social needs. However, this policy has not been fully successful.
India’s social welfare is struggling to catch up with the current economic growth in the country. Even though the government has done impressive work in boosting the state of social welfare in the country, the growth is uneven. Some areas are still in dire need of better welfare policies. In an attempt to improve social welfare, the government has abolished several redundant social policies and introduced newer and better ones. An example is the fair price shops, which sell necessities at relatively lower prices. In general, there is a marked improvement in the education, health care, employment, child development and family sectors.
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Drugs and Narcotics Policy
Despite the current global economic growth, drug abuse still remains a serious problem. The youths are most affected. This is a matter of significant concern, since the youth are the future of the world hence drug abuse puts global future in a crisis.
China has for a long time been used as a transit route for drugs from the golden triangle (Burma, Thailand, Laos and Vietnam) and the Golden Crescent (Afghanistan, Pakistan and Iran) both bordering China. The country’s proximity to sea ports has also increased illegal trade in drugs and narcotics. The government has introduced tough laws to combat this problem, but it has largely failed, especially in the rehabilitation center. The Chinese government at time detains drug addicts and violates their human rights instead of helping them. In view of the inability to control drug use and the effects, such as HIV/AIDS, the government has sought outside help to solve the problem.
The NDPS regulates the use and trade of drugs and narcotics possession after implementation of the 1985 policy on substance abuse. In general, the Indian government is very serious on regulating drug use in the country. It has introduced severe punishments for anyone caught breaking a law in regards to drugs and narcotics.
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Human trafficking is the unauthorized or illegal trade in people for the sole purposes of sexual exploitation, forced labor or simply for commercial purposes.
Industries and companies in China have for many years, been accused of engaging in human trafficking, while the government closes its eyes to the illegal trade. The government relies mostly on the United States and nongovernmental organizations to help combat this trade. These organizations do not have enough power to prosecute, thus human trafficking in China is still a major issue. The few policies available concentrate on women and children leaving male victims to suffer.
Similar to China, India has also been largely unsuccessful in combating human trafficking problems within its borders. Although there are policies and laws prohibiting various forms of modern slavery, these laws are not successfully implemented. In some countries, the government officials themselves are part of the illegal trade.
Both India and China have responded differently to various social, political and economic problems arising from globalization. One thing that is clear is that the two countries put very little effort in solving social problems. As we can see from the above discussion, military spending and the environment receive considerable attention, while the other three issues are ignored. In a general view, the two governments and many other governments in the world focus on money and politics. Though there may be economic and political growth, the affected countries will eventually crumble due to neglect of the society. The United States has played a major role in influencing better social policies both through setting an example and direct action. The US can, however, only do so much; the bulk of social responsibility is in the concerned government’s hands.